Bicycles and the Military Cyclists

Today, the image of soldiers on bicycles seems incongruous, but in the late 19th century we were not blessed with quite so much technology. We take personal transport for granted, but at this point in history you either walked or, if you were rich enough, used a horse. Bicycles, in their way, were a quiet revolution.

The earliest cycle design dates back to 1534 when Caprotti, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, sketched a design. The first modern cycles, without pedals, were used in the early 19th century and pedals appeared in 1863. The Scots were at the cutting edge of bicycle design at that time (a fact I throw in for Tootlepedal). Designs moved on to the “ordinary” or “penny farthing” design.

Thomas Stevens used a penny farthing on his trip when he became the first man to ride round the world on a bicycle in 1884-6. Annie Londonderry was the first woman to travel round the world with a bicycle, in 1894-5.

The first British military cyclists to see action were the messengers attached to the Jameson Raid in 1895-6. They appeared again during the Second Boer War of 1899-1902, when one unit was equipped with specially adapted tandems to ride along railway lines and guard them from sabotage. Both sides used bicycle troops as couriers, scouts and raiders.

Unlikely as it may seem to a generation that needs four wheel drive to cross open country, bicycles were seen as the solution to moving quantities of troops rapidly across open ground and in Switzerland they were able to travel on terrain that horses could not. With a network of roads available to them bicycle troops were seen as cheaper, quieter and easier to train than cavalry.

Both sides used bicycles in the Great War and they were also a feature of the Second World War (the Japanese using 50,000 bicycle troops in Malaya),  Vietnam and the Tamil Tigers’ uprising in Sri Lanka. The Swiss disbanded their bicycle troops in 2001, whilst the Sri Lankan army still has bicycle troops.

At the beginning of the Great War the British Army had 14 battalions of bicycle infantry ready for use. Many were used on coastal defence in the UK, and others served on the Western Front, though they were not particularly useful until the resumption of open warfare at the end of 1918.

Although this may not seem like good value it was at least as effective as the cavalry, and bikes, unlike horses, didn’t need food or stables and didn’t produce manure.


Painted enamel brooch of the Northern Cyclists – about three times life size, which is why some of the detail looks a bit blurred.

The Kent Cyclists served on  the North West Frontier during the war and, along with the 25th (County of London) Cyclist Battalion served in the Third Anglo-Afghan War.

The 2/10th (Cyclist) Battalion, Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment) served in the North Russian campaign.

The Army Cyclist Corps was disbanded in 1920 and all the units were redeployed by 1922.


Sweetheart brooch of the Huntingdonshire Cyclist Battalion. They spent most of their war guarding the Yorkshire coast. The fact that it is still there speaks highly of their efficiency and a job well done.

46 thoughts on “Bicycles and the Military Cyclists

  1. Laurie Graves

    Fascinating history. Love the pins. Wish biking would make a comeback. So many pluses. Bike lanes would be a big, big help. Wouldn’t it be interesting to see all those soldiers biking away?

    Liked by 2 people

      1. Laurie Graves

        Same here. And what a blessed relief to ride bikes where there are no cars. I really do believe that if there were more bike trails, then people would feel safer and ride bikes more for transportation.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. Laurie Graves

        Yes, traffic can be an issue, even in our rural neck of the woods. For our bike ride, we have to cross a very busy road where the cars zip by at 60 mph minimum. We have gotten to the point where we take the car across it to a little park in town and start from there. Makes me feel wimpy, but I have come to hate crossing that road on my bike.

        Liked by 1 person

      1. Adnama72Blog

        I’ve been to Sherwood a few times I Like the magic shop Mystic Moon and stonehouse bakery the cafe almost opposite well opposite the road mystic moon is off.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. Adnama72Blog

    I found this post interesting, my Mum’s Dad, my Grandpa worked at Raleigh after returning from WW2. Whilst working there he met HRH Prince Charles. I he recalled this with great pride. He was a spokes fitter and qc. A union Man for Raleigh workers.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. quercuscommunity Post author

      We were talking about the bicycle industry just a couple of days ago, and saying it’s a shame the way things have gone. Julia’s family were involved with cycle and motorbikes in Coventry around WW1.



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